The seas get cooler round Iceland-Some charts and anecdotes

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Reader Steinar J writes:

Included is a Phrase doc describing sea temperatures within the neighborhood of Iceland, sea ice extent and an excerpt,
(translated from Swedish) from an eyewitness report from the Swedish icebreaker tour to The North Pole in 2018.

Fig. 1 
On this space of the ocean the temperature drops (lower from Google Earth.
The inexperienced dots present the place it’s energetic Argo measuring buoys ).

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Argo buoys, over three,200 of them, are scattered round within the oceans of the world. These buoys measures the water temperature at numerous depths all the way down to 2000 meters depth. Within the depicted sea space in fig. 1, the temperature has dropped since measurements started at the start of the 2000s. That is in the midst of the Gulf Stream. Right here is the temperature growth within the higher 100 meters:

Fig. 2

The temperature pattern just isn’t very totally different if one examines the water additional down:

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Fig. three
Evolution of ocean temperature within the vary 100 m to 1900 m beneath the floor.

That is per observations that present that the ocean ice slowly has begun to extend in extent and quantity once more. The cyclic variation of temperature within the north has apparently given us the start of an anticipated temperature drop.

Yearly minimal sea ice extent in hundreds of thousands of km2, from yr 2000 via 2018

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Fig. four
Sea ice tendencies within the north, evaluating the minimal ice extent from yr to yr since 2000

In 2018, Sweden despatched a scientific expedition going to the North Pole through the use of the icebreaker Oden. This they lastly managed, however here’s a observe from the boat, referred to as “Veckobrev från Isbrytaren Oden 2018-08-10” (“Weekly letter from the icebreaker Oden 2018-08-10”):

“… .. It can be crucial for this analysis expedition that we come as far north as doable in order to measure on the lots of air that originate from the pack ice to the best doable extent. Different analysis tasks are always ongoing resembling ice cores, CTD, climate balloons. The ice that’s about 90-100% concentrated, is thick and compact, this in my highest non-scientific perspective as a navigator, however I’ve been up right here earlier than and never seen these situations since 2005. Life within the ship floats on with out issues. The animal life is sparse.

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As I discussed within the textual content above, it has been very compact ice, I’ve not seen comparable situations since 2005. 2016, which was the final time when Oden was up to now north it went in about 5 days from the ice edge to this latitude with common velocity 6 knots. It has taken significantly longer this time and with a mean velocity of about three knots. We’re about 45 Nm (83km) from the North Pole on the time of writing. When the ice gives this resistance you’ll be completely satisfied as an ice navigator, because it has always been gloomy information about “extraordinarily small ice distribution within the Arctic” “Ice-free within the North Polar Sea” “polar bears drown” “transport firms planning routes throughout the North Pole”. Sure, it’s no polar bears that drown right here. It could even be that it may be tough to carry down the paws within the water. We’re too excessive up on the globe for there to be good satellite tv for pc photographs to make the most of, so what’s in our assist now could be the helicopter. We don’t drive blindly and if we run out of our helicopter recon, we might moderately cease if the climate doesn’t enable flight. The truth that you cease then depends upon whether or not we really don’t see if we’re going into an space with extraordinarily tough ice that may make it tough for us to proceed, flip and even get caught. I had not hesitated throughout earlier expeditions to proceed with no helicopter recon, however within the prevailing ice situations it’s unwise. In reality, we use Odin’s all sources and programs to hold us out. The climate has been what you may count on from the summer season within the Arctic, round 1-Zero ° C within the air and about -1 ° C within the water, the visibility varies between poor to essentially unhealthy and on some events very nice. We should take care to fly the street as quickly as doable, so we at all times know the place we’re going. “