How power-to-gas expertise will be inexperienced and worthwhile


From the “you possibly can want in a single hand…” dept

Public Launch: 26-Feb-2019

Economists map out economically viable path to renewables-based hydrogen manufacturing

Technical College of Munich (TUM)

Hydrogen manufacturing primarily based on wind energy can already be commercially viable as we speak. Till now, it was usually assumed that this environmentally pleasant power-to-gas expertise couldn’t be carried out profitably. Economists on the Technical College of Munich (TUM), the College of Mannheim and Stanford College have now described, primarily based available on the market conditions in Germany and Texas, how versatile manufacturing amenities may make this expertise a key part within the transition of the power system.

From fertilizer manufacturing, as a coolant for energy stations or in gasoline cells for vehicles: Hydrogen is a extremely versatile fuel. Right now, most hydrogen for industrial functions is produced utilizing fossil fuels, above all with pure fuel and coal. In an environmentally pleasant power system, nonetheless, hydrogen may play a distinct function: as an necessary storage medium and a way of balancing energy distribution networks: extra wind and photo voltaic power can be utilized to provide hydrogen via water electrolysis. This course of is called power-to-gas. The hydrogen can get well the power later, for instance by producing energy and warmth in gasoline cells, mixing hydrogen into the pure fuel pipeline community or transformed into synthesis fuel.

“Ought to I promote the power or convert it?”

Nevertheless, power-to-gas expertise has at all times been seen as non-competitive. Gunther Glenk of the Chair of Administration Accounting at TUM and Prof. Stefan Reichelstein, a researcher on the College of Mannheim and Stanford College, have now accomplished an evaluation demonstrating the feasibility of zero-emission and worthwhile hydrogen manufacturing. Their examine, printed within the famend journal Nature Vitality, exhibits that one issue is crucial within the present market environments in Germany and Texas:

The idea requires amenities that can be utilized each to feed energy into the grid and to provide hydrogen. These mixed techniques, which aren’t but in frequent use, should reply optimally to the vast fluctuations in wind energy output and costs in energy markets. “The operator can resolve at any time: ought to I promote the power or convert it,” explains Stefan Reichelstein.

Manufacturing in some industries would already be worthwhile as we speak

In Germany and Texas, as much as sure manufacturing output ranges, such amenities may already produce hydrogen

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Kids’s Local weather Court docket Case Pushing an Injunction Towards Fossil Gasoline Extraction

A number of the youngsters getting used as local weather pawns. Picture:

Visitor essay by Eric Worrall

The Ninth Circuit is presently listening to an try by the Juliana v. United States plaintiffs to halt all fossil gas extraction in america.

The children suing the federal government over local weather change need to halt fossil gas extraction

The plaintiffs in Juliana v. United States say they’ve been denied their proper to a secure and secure local weather.

Umair Irfan

If the injunction is granted, it might result in a nationwide moratorium on new fossil gas allowing and leasing on federal lands and waters till the lawsuit is resolved. No small matter. Nonetheless, current mining and drilling tasks would nonetheless proceed.

Philip Gregory, one of many lead attorneys representing the kids submitting go well with, defined that the injunction request is supposed to deal with the urgency of limiting local weather change by decreasing emissions from fossil fuels instantly. With the case presently tied up in appeals, the plaintiffs wished to ensure the present state of affairs with respect to local weather change doesn’t worsen because the wheels of justice slowly flip.

“We’d have most well-liked to go to trial, submit our intensive proof, and have the decide require the defendants to give you a plan, a nationwide local weather restoration plan, for the way they’re going to go about doing this,” Gregory stated.

In response, the federal authorities argued this week that the injunction maneuver is a ploy to bypass correct authorized proceedings. “Certainly, Plaintiffs by their current movement are basically making a bid on this Court docket for a substitute mini-trial or ‘trial lite’ — which is untimely till the pure problems with legislation now being briefed on this interlocutory enchantment are appropriately resolved as a threshold matter,” wrote attorneys for the US Division of Justice. They described the injunction request as an “formidable try and throttle necessary authorities capabilities superintending broad swaths of the nationwide financial system.”

The federal government additionally famous that the Juliana lawsuit was filed greater than three years in the past however the plaintiffs hadn’t requested to dam fossil gas leasing till now, which undermines the plaintiffs’ argument that with out quick motion, they’d undergo irreparable hurt.

Learn extra:

A duplicate of the injunction is obtainable right here.

Even President Obama didn’t assist

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Examine: A Photo voltaic Signature in Many Local weather Indices


Jean‐Louis Le MouëlFernand LopesVincent Courtillot

We first apply singular spectrum evaluation (SSA) to the worldwide sunspot quantity (ISSN; 1849‐2015) and the rely of polar faculae (PF; 1906‐2006). The SSA methodology finds 22, 11 and 5.5‐12 months elements as the primary eigenvectors of those photo voltaic exercise proxies. We subsequent apply SSA to the ten Madden‐Julian oscillation (MJO; 1978‐2016) indices.

The primary, most intense part SSA finds in all MJO indices has both a interval of 5.5 or 11 years. The longer‐time period modulation of amplitude is on the order of 1 third of the entire variation. The 5.5‐12 months SSA part 1 of most MJO indices furthermore follows the lowering amplitude of photo voltaic cycles. We then apply SSA to local weather indices PDO, ENSO, WPO, AAO, AMO, TSA, WHWP, and Brazil and Sahel rainfalls. We discover that the primary SSA eigenvectors are all mixtures of quite pure 11, 5.5 and three.6‐12 months pseudo‐cycles.

The 5.5‐12 months part is often noticed and is especially essential and sharp within the sequence during which it seems. All these intervals have lengthy been attributed to photo voltaic exercise, and this by itself argues for the existence of a powerful hyperlink between photo voltaic exercise and local weather. The mechanisms of coupling have to be advanced and doubtless non‐linear however they continue to be to be absolutely understood (UV radiation, photo voltaic wind and galactic cosmic rays being essentially the most promising candidates).

We suggest as a primary step a Kuramoto mannequin of non‐linear coupling that generates part variations suitable with the noticed ones.

The paper is, sadly, paywalled.

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X-rays Could be a Higher Method to Talk in House

Within the coming years, hundreds of satellites, a number of next-generation area telescopes and even a couple of area habitats are anticipated to be launched into orbit. Past Earth, a number of missions are deliberate to be despatched to the lunar floor, to Mars, and past. As humanity’s presence in area will increase, the quantity of information that’s repeatedly being again despatched to Earth is reaching the bounds of what radio communications can deal with.

For that reason, NASA and different area companies are searching for new strategies for sending data forwards and backwards throughout area. Already, optical communications (which depend on lasers to encode and transmit data) are being developed, however different extra radical ideas are additionally being investigating. These embrace X-ray communications, which NASA is gearing as much as take a look at in area utilizing their XCOM know-how demonstrator.

Since its inception in 1958, NASA has relied solely on radio communications to remain involved with all of its missions past Earth. A lot of this has been dealt with by NASA’s Deep House Community (DSN), a worldwide community of large radio antennas that has supported all of NASA’s interplanetary missions and a few missions to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO).

One of many huge radio antennas supporting NASA’s Deep House Community (DSN). Credit score: NASA

However with renewed missions to the Moon, crewed missions to Mars, and an increasing array of miniature satellites coming within the near-future, NASA will want a extra environment friendly and sturdy communications system than ever earlier than. To this point, using lasers to encode and transmit knowledge has proven promise, able to working 10 to 100 instances extra effectively than radio methods.

Nevertheless, NASA is wanting past these elements of the spectrum to accommodate the move of knowledge. That is the place the idea of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which provide much more in the best way of benefits than lasers. For one, X-rays have a lot shorter wavelengths than each radio waves and lasers and may broadcast in tighter beams.

Which means that extra data could possibly be despatched with the identical quantity of transmission energy, and fewer power can be wanted over lengthy distances – no less than in principle. As well as, X-rays additionally take pleasure in having the ability to penetrate the recent plasma that builds up as spacecraft re-enter Earth’s ambiance at hypersonic speeds.

These plasma

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Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez To Inexperienced New Deal Haters: ‘I’m The Boss. How ‘Bout That?’

From The Day by day Caller

Talking at a “Women Who Code” occasion in New York Metropolis, self-identified democratic socialist Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez hit again in opposition to critics of her Inexperienced New Deal decision.


“I simply launched the Inexperienced New Deal two weeks in the past, and it’s creating all of this dialog,” the New York Democratic congresswoman mentioned Friday to moderator Reshma Saujani, the CEO of Women Who Code. “Why? As a result of nobody else has even tried. As a result of nobody else has even tried.”

Ocasio-Cortez claimed that — no matter success — the “energy” goes to the person who tries.

“So individuals are like, ‘Oh it’s unrealistic. Oh it’s obscure. Oh it doesn’t handle this little minute factor.’ And I’m like, ‘You attempt. You do it. ‘Cuz you’re not. ‘Cuz you’re not. So, till you do it, I’m the boss.’ How ’bout that?’”

Ocasio-Cortez launched her Inexperienced New Deal decision earlier in February alongside Democratic Massachusetts Sen. Ed Markey. The invoice not solely requires the U.S. to dramatically transition to 100 % renewable vitality in only a few years, but in addition calls for upgrading all buildings within the nation, addressing the emissions launched from cow farts in a now-deleted FAQ web page, and touches on numerous different progressive points. (RELATED: ‘Dis Me. I’ve Been Round Awhile’: Joe Lieberman Is Not Impressed By Ocasio-Cortez)

The decision has been met with criticism and mock from each events. Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin, the second-highest rating senator in his get together, mentioned after studying and re-reading the Inexperienced New Deal, he nonetheless needed to ask a co-sponsor, “What within the heck is that this?”

Senate Majority Chief Mitch McConnell would possibly deliver the Inexperienced New Deal up for a vote within the higher chamber of Congress within the coming days. The transfer would pressure quite a few Democratic presidential candidates to take a public stance on the invoice.

Comply with Jason on Twitter.

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez To Inexperienced New Deal Haters: ‘I’m The Boss. How ‘Bout That?’ Read More

Hubble Exhibits off the Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune

Like Earth, Uranus and Neptune have season and expertise modifications in climate patterns in consequence. However in contrast to Earth, the seasons on these planets final for years slightly than months, and climate patterns happen on a scale that’s unimaginable by Earth requirements. instance is the storms which have been noticed in Neptune and Uranus’ ambiance, which embrace Neptune’s well-known Nice Darkish Spot.

Throughout its yearly routine of monitoring Uranus and Neptune, NASA’s Hubble House Telescope (HST) just lately supplied up to date observations of each planets’ climate patterns. Along with recognizing a brand new and mysterious storm on Neptune, Hubble supplied a recent have a look at a long-lived storm round Uranus’ north pole. These observations are a part of Hubble‘s long-term mission to enhance our understanding of the outer planets.

The brand new pictures had been taken as a part of the Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, a long-term Hubble venture led by Amy Simon of NASA’s Goddard House Flight Middle. Yearly, this program captures international maps of our Photo voltaic System’s outer planets when they’re closest to Earth. One in all OPAL’s key objectives is to check long-term seasonal modifications and relatively transitory occasions, corresponding to the looks of darkish spots.

Voyager 2 captured this picture of Neptune in 1982, when it was over 7 million km (four.four million miles) away from the planet. The Nice Darkish Spot in the midst of the picture was the primary storm ever seen on Neptune. Credit score: By NASA-JPL

Recognizing them is not any simple process, since these darkish spots seem rapidly and are comparatively short-lived, to the purpose the place some could have appeared and disappeared throughout multi-year gaps in Hubble’s observations of Neptune. That is one other objective of the OPAL program, which is to make sure that astronomers don’t miss one other one.

This newest darkish spot, which measures roughly 11,000 km (6,800 mi) in diameter, seems on the prime middle of the planet. Hubble first noticed it in September of 2018, when Neptune’s southern hemisphere was experiencing summer time. That is per seasonal change on the planet, the place warming within the southern hemisphere causes climate patterns to develop into extra dramatic within the north.

Whereas it’s unclear precisely how these storms kind, new analysis by Simon and the OPAL crew point out that they kind rapidly, final from 4 to 6 years,

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The Marvelous and Mysterious Monarch

Visitor essay by Kip Hansen

The marvelous Monarch Butterfly is an icon of organic thriller.  Once I was born, circa 1950, monarchs had been identified to fly north into southern Texas each spring by the tens of millions.  Within the Fall, vacationers would go to Cape Might, New Jersey, timing their visits to look at the wonder and pageantry of the Monarch Migration south once more as they’re funneled down the southern New Jersey peninsula from New England and factors north, headed south to an unknown vacation spot, believed to be someplace in Mexico.

It wasn’t till 1975, lengthy after I had handed by college, that the placement of the monarch overwintering website within the central mountains of Mexico was found.  For 40 years, Dr. Fred Urquhart had looked for the monarch’s overwintering website…lastly discovering the placement within the fall of 1975.  Urquhart wrote of his discovery in Nationwide Geographic journal, which had funded his search, within the August 1976 problem.  He didn’t, nonetheless, reveal the precise location of the butterfly colonies at the moment, not even to different scientists.

As this picture in the beginning of this essay reveals monarch butterflies start to maneuver south each August (the orange arrows).


“Not like most different bugs in temperate climates, Monarch butterflies can not survive a protracted chilly winter. As an alternative, they spend the winter in roosting spots. Monarchs west of the Rocky Mountains journey to small groves of timber alongside the California coast. These east of the Rocky Mountains fly farther south to the forests excessive within the mountains of Mexico. The monarch’s migration is pushed by seasonal adjustments. Daylength and temperature adjustments affect the motion of the Monarch.

In all of the world, no butterflies migrate just like the Monarchs of North America. They journey a lot farther than all different tropical butterflies, as much as three thousand miles. They’re the one butterflies to make such a protracted, two manner migration yearly. Amazingly, they fly in plenty to the identical winter roosts, typically to the very same timber. Their migration is extra the kind we count on from birds or whales. Nevertheless, in contrast to birds and whales, people solely make the round-trip as soon as. It’s their kids’s grandchildren [or great-grandchildren and even great-great-grandchildren]  that return south the next fall.”  [ hyperlink ]

Migrating Monarch populations have been in bother because the flip of the …

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InSight has Positioned its Warmth Probe on the Martian Floor. The Subsequent Step is to Jackhammer Down 5 Meters and Hope it Doesn’t Encounter a Giant Rock

NASA’s InSight lander has lastly positioned its warmth probe on the floor of Mars. The Warmth Circulation and Bodily Properties Package deal (HPthree) was deployed on February 12th, about one meter away from SEIS, the landers seismometer. Quickly it’ll begin hammering its means into the Martian soil.

Should you’re beginning to get used to feats like this, preserve a couple of issues in thoughts.

The lander is on Mars, a planet that’s over 50 million kilometers away, and takes about 6 months to journey to. As soon as there, the lander needed to undergo a deadly touchdown course of simply to reach on the floor intact. It’s touchdown website was rigorously chosen, and to ensure that this stationary lander to do its factor, it has to stay its touchdown.

Then comes the laborious half.

“Inside a couple of days, we’ll lastly break floor utilizing part of our instrument we name the mole.”

Tilman Spohn, HP3 Principal Investigator, German Aerospace Middle.

Perception needed to rigorously look at its environment and resolve on the proper spot to position its devices. After weeks of examination, it selected this actual spot for the HPthreeThen comes the Warmth Probe, which is a feat of engineering in itself.

“That factor weighs lower than a pair of sneakers, makes use of much less energy than a Wi-Fi router and has to dig at the very least 10 toes [3 meters] on one other planet,” Hudson mentioned. “It took a lot work to get a model that might make tens of 1000’s of hammer strokes with out tearing itself aside; some early variations failed earlier than making it to 16 toes [5 meters], however the model we despatched to Mars has confirmed its robustness repeatedly.”

The entire function of this endeavour is to be taught concerning the inside construction of Mars. The Warmth Probe and Bodily Properties Package deal will measure the quantity of warmth popping out of the middle of Mars. To try this, it has to hammer its means into the planet.

An illustration of the HP3 warmth probe deployed on Mars. Picture Credit score: NASA/JPL.

“Our probe is designed to measure warmth coming from the within of Mars,” mentioned InSight Deputy Principal Investigator Sue Smrekar of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “That’s why we need to get it belowground. Temperature modifications on the floor, each from the seasons

InSight has Positioned its Warmth Probe on the Martian Floor. The Subsequent Step is to Jackhammer Down 5 Meters and Hope it Doesn’t Encounter a Giant Rock Read More

Newly Found Trans-Neptunian Comet Zooms By Earth in three Days

In just a few days, newly-discovered Comet Iwamoto will cut up the orbits of Earth and Mars, making a comparatively shut strategy to our planet seen by way of small telescopes. It is a uncommon go to. The comet comes from the realm of Excessive Trans-Neptunian Objects, a distant area of the photo voltaic system inhabited by unusual objects akin to “Sedna” and “the Goblin.”

Animation beneath might take awhile to load:

Taken by michael jäger on February 7, 2019 @ Jauerling Austria

Found in Dec. 2018 by Japanese beginner astronomer Masayuki Iwamoto, utilizing binoculars, this comet is a customer from past the Kuiper Belt. It comes from the realm of Excessive Trans-Neptunian Objects (ETNOs) greater than 5 instances as removed from the solar as Pluto. This implies it may very well be a relative of different ETNOS akin to Sedna, 2012 VP113 (“Biden“), and 2015 TG387 (“Goblin“).  Extra at

From NASA JPL, this picture exhibits the place of the comet when it makes the closest strategy to Earth on Feb 12th.

See the interactive orbit viewer right here


Iwamoto will cross closest to Earth on February 12. This comet’s extremely elliptical orbit across the Solar stretches past the Kuiper belt with an estimated 1,371 12 months orbital interval. That ought to carry it again to the inside Photo voltaic System in 3390 AD. The comet is touring very quick by way of house at a pace of 147,948 miles per hour (238,099 km/h) relative to Earth.

That’s a pace of 41 miles per second!

Above: Comet Iwamoto (C/2018 Y1), exhibits off a fairly, greenish coma on the higher left on this telescopic subject of view. Taken on February four from the Mount John Observatory, College of Canterbury, the 30 minute lengthy whole publicity time exhibits the comet sweeping rapidly throughout a background of stars and distant galaxies within the constellation Virgo. The lengthy publicity and Iwamoto’s speedy movement relative to the celebs and galaxies leads to the noticeable blurred streak tracing the the comet’s brilliant inside coma. In reality, the streaked coma offers the comet a remarkably comparable look to Messier 104 at decrease proper, popularly generally known as the Sombrero Galaxy. The comet, a customer to the inside Photo voltaic System, is a mere four light-minutes away although, whereas majestic Messier 104, a spiral galaxy posing edge-on, is 30 million

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Discovering: Jet plane trails create additional rain and snow from clouds

WASHINGTON—Planes flying over rain or snow can intensify the precipitation by as a lot as 10-fold, in accordance with a brand new examine.

The rain- and snow-bursts should not brought on by emissions from the plane however are the peculiar consequence of the aircrafts’ wings passing although clouds of supercooled water droplets in cloud layers above a layer of lively rain or snow.

Underneath the fitting circumstances, this impact can enhance rain and snow storms over airports, the place many planes intersect the cloud layer on strategy and descent.

“The attention-grabbing factor about this characteristic is that it’s brought on by plane, however it’s not brought on by air pollution,” mentioned Dimitri Moisseev, a researcher on the College of Helsinki and the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the lead writer of the new examine in AGU’s Journal of Geophysical Analysis: Atmospheres. “Even when there can be completely ecological airplanes, which don’t have any combustion, no gas or something, it could nonetheless occur.”

Though the bands of enhanced precipitation are artificially created, the bodily course of jump-started by the passage of planes can happen naturally, which makes them helpful laboratories for learning the formation of precipitation, in accordance with Moisseev. Observing them might assist meteorologists “nowcast” pure rain and snow circumstances 2 to six hours into the longer term, which is important for airport operations.

“If you, like myself, have a look at the radar information day by day there may be all the time one thing attention-grabbing happening,” Moisseev mentioned. “Surprisingly sufficient, there’s all the time new issues that we can not clarify nonetheless.”

Moisseev found curious streamers of heightened precipitation in scans from the campus radar antenna on the College of Helsinki Kumpula. The unnaturally straight patches of intense precipitation appeared in opposition to a background of lighter rain or snow and appeared to bend towards the close by Helsinki-Vantaa airport.


A radar station at Kerava, Finland, recorded a path of heightened precipitation—the yellow streak to the left—on the plane strategy path to Helsinki-Vantaa airport (EFHK) in March 2009.Credit score: AGU/Journal of Geophysical Analysis: Atmospheres

Their shapes appeared intriguingly just like the inverse of cloud formations often called fallstreaks, hole-punch or canal clouds, phenomena which may happen when plane fly via clouds of water droplets which are colder than zero levels Celsius (32 levels Fahrenheit) —however aren’t freezing.

The brand new examine demonstrates related phenomenon can improve or …

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